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DHR Register Program Updates

July, 2019
In this issue:
*Update on Proposed Changes Federal Rules for the NRHP
*Results of DHR's recent Joint Quarterly Boards Meeting *Register-Listed Places in the News *History News from Around Virginia *News & Announcements
Greetings All,*

To keep everyone abreast of DHR’s Virginia Landmarks Register and National Register programs, as well as related news and history, here is our latest update from Lena McDonald, Historian, DHR Register Program.

*Consultants, CLG staff, university faculty, students, and anyone interested in Virginia's landmark register programs and history. (Please share this newsletter with others!)

Update: Proposed Changes to Federal Rules

for the National Register

We last reported on this matter in June; here's the latest since then:

As most recipients of this newsletter know, the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) has proposed changes to the federal rules for implementing the National Register program. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking appeared in the Federal Register (the compendium for all federal rules and regulations, Executive Orders, and public notices). Public comment on the proposed changes closed on April 30, 2019, but the DOI has since conducted some additional consultation with interested parties.

Previously, the DOI asserted that the proposed rule changes would not affect federally-recognized tribes. This overlooked the fact that many places of cultural and historical significance to tribes are located on federally owned lands. Among other things, the proposed federal rule changes would limit consideration of a property’s significance only to Federal Preservation Officers and the Keeper of the National Register, which would not meet the requirement that the U.S. government engage in consultation with sovereign tribes on a government-to-government basis. It has long been settled law that a federally recognized tribe is an American Indian or Alaska Native tribal entity that is recognized as having a government-to-government relationship with the United States, with the responsibilities, powers, limitations, and obligations attached to that designation. Furthermore, federally recognized tribes are recognized as possessing certain inherent rights of self-government (i.e., tribal sovereignty) and are entitled to receive certain federal benefits, services, and protections because of their special relationship with the United States.

Following criticism, last month the DOI announced that it planned to consult with tribes about the proposed rule. According to the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers (NCSHPO), the argument that the rule changes had no impact on tribes and the failure to consult with tribes represented the greatest public relations threat that the DOI faced related to the rule changes. It is unclear if the decision to open consultation with tribes will remove that threat.

However, the National Association for Tribal Historic Preservation Officers (NATHPO) has said the tribes do not believe that the consultation outlined in the DOI’s announcement constitutes government-to-government consultation. NATHPO’s overarching purpose is to support the preservation, maintenance, and revitalization of the culture and traditions of Native peoples of the United States. This is accomplished most importantly through the support of Tribal Historic Preservation Programs as acknowledged by the National Park Service, which is within the DOI. The DOI’s proposed consultation with tribes consisted of a single group meeting and a single teleconference, which NATHPO finds is hardly meaningful and robust government-to-government consultation in good faith about the proposed changes to the National Register program.

More than 570 tribes have been federally recognized to date, including seven tribes in Virginia. The Department of Historic Resources (DHR) concurs that a single meeting and a single teleconference being offered to tribes are not in keeping with the federal government’s responsibility to recognize tribal sovereignty and rights to self-determination. As is posted on the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs webpage, “The relationship between federally recognized tribes and the United States is one between sovereigns, i.e., between a government and a government. This 'government-to-government' principle, which is grounded in the United States Constitution, has helped to shape the long history of relations between the federal government and these tribal nations" [emphasis added].

A robust consultation process among the DOI and each federally recognized tribe is necessary concerning any changes to the National Register program. The DOI should recognize and facilitate tribes’ direct cultural and ancestral connections to important historic sites on federally owned lands, rather than attempting to limit those connections. Furthermore, the DOI should understand that the National Register is the backbone of the nation’s approach to historic preservation, as eligibility for or listing in the National Register is the metric that must be met for a place to be considered “historic.” Without effective tribal consultation, the DOI cannot properly evaluate and manage places of historic significance to each tribe, which thus curtails each tribe’s sovereignty and right to self-determination.

Nominations & PIFs Approved at June Joint Board Meeting

Photos of buildings for listing in the Virginia Landmarks Register
The Virginia State Review Board and the Board of Historic Resources convened on Thursday, June 20 at Sweet Briar College. Both boards approved the following nominations, which will remain online at https://www.dhr.virginia.gov/boards/ a few more weeks, prior to posting new nominations for the boards' September meeting. (You can also see a summary of each property and photos here.)
Eastern Region
  1. Samuel Eley House, City of Suffolk, DHR #133-0101, Criterion C
  2. Isle of Wight County Courthouse Complex, Isle of Wight County, DHR #046-0005, Criteria A and C
  3. Kirnan (China Hall), Westmoreland County, DHR #096-0013, Criterion C
  4. Chief Otho S. Nelson House, King and Queen County, DHR #049-5132, Criteria A and C
  5. Nike-Ajax Missile Launch Site N-75, Isle of Wight County, DHR #046-5052, Criteria A and C
  6. Norwood-Wingina Rural Historic District, Nelson County, DHR #062-5135, Criteria A and C
  7. Third Street Bethel AME Church 2019 Update and Boundary Increase, City of Richmond, DHR #127-0274, Criteria A and C
Northern Region
  1. Stones Chapel, Clarke County, DHR #021-0229, Criteria A and C
Western Region
  1. American Viscose Plant, City of Roanoke, DHR #128-0238, Criteria A and C
  2. Appalachia Historic District, Town of Appalachia, Wise County, DHR #164-5003, Criteria A and C
Preliminary Information Forms (PIFs):
The State Review Board approved the following Preliminary Information Forms (PIFs) at their meeting on June 20, 2019. The PIFs will remain online at https://www.dhr.virginia.gov/boards/ until materials for the next board meeting in September 2019 are posted.

Western Region
  1. Williams Farm, Pittsylvania County, DHR #071-5475, Criteria A and C
Northern Region
  1. Brookside, Culpeper County, DHR #023-5520, Criteria A and C
  2. Conrad’s Store, Town of Elkton, Rockingham County, DHR #216-0002, Criteria A and C
  3. Sylvania Plant Historic District, Spotsylvania County, DHR #088-5545, Criteria A and C
  4. Vint Hill Farms Station Historic District, Fauquier County, DHR #030-0020, Criterion A
  5. Winslow Residence, Page County, DHR #069-0050, Criterion C
Eastern Region
  1. Beulah AME Church, Town of Farmville, Prince Edward County, DHR #144-0027-0169, Criteria A and C and Criteria Consideration A
  2. Chase City Warehouse and Commercial Historic District, Town of Chase City, Mecklenburg County, DHR #186-5005, Criteria A and C
  3. Christ and Grace Episcopal Church, City of Petersburg, DHR #123-5506, Criterion C and Criteria Consideration A
  4. Little High Street Historic District, City of Charlottesville, DHR #104-5361, Criteria A and C
  5. Pine Grove School, Cumberland County, DHR #024-5082, Criteria A and C
  6. **Walnut Hill Historic District, City of Petersburg, DHR #123-5505

Register-Listed Places in the News

Shows exterior of Pope-Leighey House
Pope-Leighey House in Alexandria
The National Trust for Historic Preservation has created a new online tour of the Pope-Leighey House, designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright, that shows how the property has evolved over time. When built in 1941, the house was a pioneering example of Wright’s “Usonian” concept of well designed, affordable housing for people of moderate means.
In 1965, the house was disassembled and moved to a new location at the historic Woodlawn, to avoid demolition due to road construction. In 1995-1996, the house was disassembled and moved again, this time only about 30 feet, due to instability of the soils at the previous site. Indicative of its national architectural significance, the Pope-Leighey House was listed in the Virginia Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, less than 40 years after its original construction. (Listing typically requires a property be at least 50 years old.)
Aerial view of Monument Avenue
Monument Avenue Historic District Walking Tour
CLIO, an educational website and app focused on historical and cultural sites, has unveiled a new multimedia walking tour of Richmond’s Monument Avenue. The tour begins at the east end of the district with the J.E.B. Stuart monument and continues west, ending at the Arthur Ashe monument. Each statue has its own tour page with a summary of its history, a narrative of the commemorated person’s career, and information about the artist who created each monument, as well as historic and current photos. Links to articles at other websites and to audio and video clips of scholars discussing the monuments round out each webpage.
The tour acknowledges the controversy concerning monuments and memorials honoring Confederate leaders. It also summarizes the controversy that arose in the 1990s over placement of a statue on the avenue to honor Arthur Ashe, a Richmond native, barrier-breaking tennis star, and human rights advocate. Additionally, public engagement activities concerning current and future interpretation of the monuments are discussed in multiple places. The Monument Avenue Historic District was listed in the Virginia Landmarks Register in 1969 and the National Register of Historic Places in 1970. The historic district was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1997, the year after Ashe’s statue was dedicated at the intersection of Monument Avenue and Roseneath Road.
Aerial view of Contrabands and Freedmen Cemetery
“Contrabands” of the Civil War in Virginia
The National Trust for Historic Preservation recently published a detailed article explaining the immense historical importance of the African Americans who sought freedom behind U.S. military-held lines in Virginia during the Civil War.
Three Virginia sites, Fort Monroe in Hampton, the Contrabands and Freedmen Cemetery in Alexandria (photo) as well as the city's intertwined Fort Ward and Oakland Baptist Church Cemetery are highlighted for their particular significance in the history of African Americans fighting for freedom.

At Fort Monroe, U.S. Army General Benjamin Butler crafted an ingenious, pragmatic solution for African Americans escaping slavery after three men sought safety behind the lines of U.S. military troops. Butler’s “contrabands decision” allowed thousands of African Americans to escape slavery through the rest of the war. Fort Monroe first was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960, then listed in the Virginia Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places after the creation of each register in 1966. In 2013, a comprehensive update to the VLR/NRHP nomination provided a thorough discussion of Butler’s contrabands decision.

At the Contrabands and Freedmen Cemetery, 75 African American contrabands-turned-soldiers were buried among civilians who had died at a nearby contrabands camp. A protest by 443 active duty African American servicemen convinced Major General Montgomery Meigs, quartermaster general in Washington, to reinter the soldiers at Arlington National Cemetery, alongside white soldiers also killed in action. Their burials today are marked USCT, the initials for United States Colored Troops, the name of their segregated unit. The Contrabands and Freedmen Cemetery (see photo above) was listed in the VLR and NRHP in 2012, and today features an on-site educational exhibit about the site’s history and importance.

Fort Ward and the Oakland Baptist Church Cemetery, a Civil War fort and a freedmen’s community were established alongside one another. The freedmen’s community endured for almost a century, until the City of Alexandria purchased much of the community, in some cases using eminent domain, to restore the fort as part of Civil War centennial commemorations and to turn it into a public park. Thereafter, only the cemetery remained in active use, a reminder of the freedmen’s community. During the 2010s, the City used grant funds to erect markers throughout the park that discuss the community that once stood here. Fort Ward was listed in the VLR in 1981 and the NRHP in 1982, while the Oakland Baptist Church Cemetery was listed in the VLR in 2017 and the NRHP in 2018.
James Monroe's Highland
James Monroe’s Highland and the Monroetown Descendants’ Community
Featured in a New York Times article, the story of James Monroe, fifth president of the United States, and the enslaved African Americans who worked at his plantation is reaching a new audience.
Beginning in 2016, researchers at Highland began reviewing documentation about the plantation’s enslaved community, only to discover what nearby residents always had known. A community of descendants had been living near Highland since the Reconstruction Era. Informally dubbed Monroetown, the community originally consisted largely of emancipated African Americans from Highland, some of whom used Monroe as their surname. Seven generations later, current family members and residents are working with Highland’s staff on improving understanding and interpretation of the experience of enslaved African Americans at Monroe’s estate, especially in light of his abolitionist stance during his presidency. This initiative joins years-long efforts at Monticello and Montpelier to address slavery much more directly than it had been in previous decades. Among the most surprising results of the work at Highland was discovery of another descendants’ community in Florida, who were the progeny of several enslaved families that Monroe sold to a Florida plantation owner to pay off his own debts. Research efforts concerning both communities are slated to continue. Highland was listed in the Virginia Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.
Beautiful grounds at Chippokes State Park.
Chippokes Plantation State Park’s Authentic Historic Gardens
The Fredericksburg Free Lance-Star recently featured the demonstration gardens at Chippokes Plantation State Park in an article about the painstaking research required to select appropriate crops.
Each of the groupings at the history-centered state park in Surry features heirloom plants from different cultural groups that lived on the plantation, founded in 1619 and today one of the oldest continuously farmed properties in the U.S. Themed gardens include heirloom varieties of crops grown by Virginia Indians and enslaved Africans and African Americans, as well as a 19th century “kitchen garden” and a historic herb and orchard area. Staff at the park perused vintage seed catalogs and cookbooks from the 19th century to develop the plants list. The park uses what is grown in the gardens in hearth-cooking demonstrations and to feed a growing gaggle of livestock. Since park staff began managing the gardens several years ago, they also have updated exhibits at the historic outbuildings, including one with farm equipment from the 17th through mid-20th century and another with historic farmhouse interiors from the 1830s, 1890s, and 1940s. The gardens and exhibits are open along with the rest of the park and ready for visitors! The Chippokes Plantation Historic District was listed in the Virginia Landmarks Register in 1968 and the National Register of Historic Places in 1969.

History News from Around Virginia

Preserving the Green Pastures Recreation Area
A recent Roanoke Times article about Green Pastures Recreation Area brought this important historic site to DHR’s attention. Dating to 1938-1940 and the waning days of the New Deal, the Green Pastures Recreation Area was created on federally-owned U.S. Forest Service (USFS) land in today’s George Washington and Jefferson National Forest not long after Virginia’s first state parks were established.
The era of its creation was the height of Jim Crow segregation, when all of Virginia's new state parks were for whites only. The Clifton Forge chapter of the NAACP and other local black residents, which included the Rev. Hugo Austin of First Baptist Church, challenged the segregation of the parks. Their advocacy prompted the creation of the Green Pastures Recreation Area for African Americans on federal property in Alleghany County.

The historic bathhouses at the park were constructed by the all-black Camp Dolly Ann company of the Civilian Conservation Corps during the early 1940s. Green Pastures became immensely popular with African Americans from throughout the Alleghany Highlands. The USFS integrated all of its recreational areas in 1950, but Green Pastures remained predominantly a haven for blacks. By the late 1950s, Green Pastures was still the only public park open to African Americans in this region of Virginia. During the following decade, more white families started going there to swim and have picnics. The park remained open after passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act outlawed racial segregation in public places such as parks, restaurants, bus and train stations, hotels, and other places open to the public. Green Pastures was renamed the Longdale Recreation Area after integration, and remained open to the public through the rest of the 20th century. Today, however, the park is barely accessible, having suffered considerably from deferred maintenance due to budget cuts. The lake is no longer safe for swimming, nor are the bathhouses usable. A stone picnic shelter and other hand-built landscape features are in poor repair, while a historic concrete bridge accessing the site is closed to vehicular traffic.

Every year since the early 2000s, the USFS has received less federal money for recreational operations. The budget cuts forced USFS to stop spending money on cleaning and dredging the lake at Green Pastures. Attendance dropped, which sent the park into a downward spiral. The USFS’s overall budget for recreation, facilities, and trail maintenance in the Washington and Jefferson forests has been reduced by nearly 60 percent since 2001, from just under $10 million to $4 million today. In the past five years, money for just recreational operations in the George Washington and Jefferson national forests (which includes management of campgrounds, Lake Moomaw, Sherando Lake, Cave Mountain Lake, and other spots) has been cut from $1.85 million to $1.65 million. This is partly due to the USFS having to spend an increasing share of its total budget on firefighting in western states.

Today, a dedicated group of volunteers now works with the USFS to improve maintenance and raise awareness of the site’s historic significance. Local resident Calvin McClinton formed the McClinton Foundation, which raises money for routine upkeep, while USFS officials are still searching for a longer-term solution for making more expensive repairs.

Although the first public park for African Americans in Virginia, and perhaps the first of its kind in the United States when the USFS opened it in 1938, the Green Acres Recreation Area escaped DHR’s notice when the Virginia State Parks Built by New Deal Programs, including CCC and WPA multiple property documentation form (MPD) was prepared. The MPD focused on state-owned public parks, while Green Acres is on federal land. The history of its founding, however, bears striking similarities to Prince Edward Lake, the first state park designated for African Americans. After desegregation, Prince Edward Lake merged with the nearby Goodwin Lake State Park to form today’s Twin Lakes State Park.
Screen shot of the website for Tidewater's LGBTQ History
Tidewater Queer History Project
The Tidewater Queer History Project (TQHP) is dedicated to collecting and preserving LGBTQ history from in and around Virginia’s Tidewater area.
TQHP has facilitated the digitization of a large portion of LGBTQ materials in Perry Library’s Special Collections at Old Dominion University. In addition to TQHP’s digital collection of oral history interviews, a physical archive of LGBTQ materials and artifacts from southeastern Virginia is being created.

If you or someone you know has items to donate, please contact TQHP’s director, Cathleen Rhodes, via email or by phone at 757-683-4329. TQHP is interested in a wide variety of materials including, but not limited to, issues of local newspapers/guides (Our Own, The Paper, Out and About, The Lambda Directory); t-shirts, buttons, flyers, and other personal memorabilia; bar and bookstore artifacts; and photos, negatives, slides, and video in various formats. For more information about TQHP please visit their website or Facebook page.
VA Forum
Virginia Forum Call For Papers
The Virginia Forum will hold its 15th annual conference March 26-28, 2020, at the Virginia War Memorial in Richmond. The Virginia Forum offers an opportunity for scholars, teachers, writers, museum curators, historic site interpreters, archivists, librarians, and all those interested in Virginia history and culture to share their knowledge, research, and experiences.
Virginia Forum is interdisciplinary, including work in history, economics, politics, geography, law, literature, education, politics, environmental studies, archaeology and anthropology. Customary panel and paper proposals on all such topics are invited, as are ones for creative presentation formats such as posters, roundtables, workshops, demonstrations, etc. Moreover, the Virginia Forum welcomes proposals from teachers, students, and professionals outside of the academy, as well as from scholars in the early stages of their academic careers.

While the Virginia Forum welcomes proposals on any Virginia topic, each year a theme is selected to inspire proposals and prompt reflection. This year’s theme is “Crafting History.” History does not simply occur. It is made, shaped, and maintained by those seeking to preserve and to inform. History is a product of society and culture and reflects the values, perspectives, and biases of those who produce it. In words, both written and spoken, in our monuments, memorials, and art, people craft history. Participants in the 2020 Virginia Forum are encouraged to consider the many ways that we make our history and the ways, in turn, that our history makes us who we are. As always, proposals on any Virginia topic are very welcome. Submission guidelines and conference information are available at the Virginia Forum’s website.
Richmond’s Evergreen Cemetery
The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has designated Richmond’s Evergreen Cemetery as “a site of memory” due to its historic significance to the African American diaspora. UNESCO’s Slave Route Project was launched in 1994 and recognizes sites highlighting the history and impact of the international slave trade.
For decades the historic cemetery sat overgrown and neglected in Richmond’s East End. But Viola Baskerville, the spokesperson for Evergreen Cemetery’s planning and review team, said the UNESCO award is, in part, a recognition of the restoration and historical research undertaken by hundreds of volunteers in recent years. “It also announces to the world what we in Richmond already knew: that these 10,000+ souls who are already resting here are critically important to the story of America,” she said. Ali Moussa Iye, Director of the Slave Route Project, added that Evergreen Cemetery “has great potential to encourage reflection on their many contributions to Virginia and United States history.”
Photo of historic school building in Virginia
New Grants Awarded for Preservation of Historic African American Properties
At the 25th annual Essence Festival in New Orleans, the National Trust for Historic Preservation announced more than $1.6 million in grant support through the African American Cultural Heritage Action Fund to 22 sites and organizations across the U.S., including in Virginia. The funds, provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, were awarded to key places and organizations that help protect and restore African American historic sites.
This year’s awardees include the Virginia Humanities Foundation, which will establish and staff a statewide African American historic preservation advocacy and resource team to expand interpretation of the historic places and people affiliated with African American life in rural and urban Virginia. Located in Richmond’s East End, Evergreen Cemetery also received a grant (in addition to the UNESCO designation, discussed above). As the final resting place of business executives and political activists such as Maggie L. Walker and John Mitchell Jr., as well as thousands of African Americans from all walks of life, the cemetery currently serves descendant families and the general public as a memorial park, historic site, and 60-acre monument to African American resilience and achievement from the Civil War era through the early 21st century.

The African American Cultural Heritage Action Fund is a $25 million multi-year national initiative aimed at uplifting the largely overlooked contributions of African Americans by protecting and restoring African American historic sites and uncovering hidden stories of African Americans connected to historic sites across the nation. External review of grant applications was provided by the Association for the Study of African American Life and History and the Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University.

News from Elsewhere

Online Registration Now Open for the National Trust’s Past Forward Conference
The National Trust for Historic Preservation is hosting the 2019 Past Forward conference in Denver, Colorado, on October 10–12 (Thursday through Saturday). Online registration has opened, with a reduced “early bird” registration fee available through July 31. This year’s conference has three themes: women’s history, revitalizing small communities, and saving urban neighborhoods. A new component this year will be organization capacity-building sessions to assist organizations of all sizes to maximize their resources. The conference headquarters hotel is the Sheraton Downtown (1550 Court Pl, Denver, CO 80202). Room rates start at $199 (rates do not include applicable state and local taxes of 15.75%). Rates are available for during the conference (Oct 10-12) and three days prior/after conference dates if reserved by September 7, 8:00 p.m. EST.

First Full-Time Executive Director of the ACHP Confirmed
On June 27, 2019, the U.S. Senate confirmed Aimee Jorjani as chair of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. She is the first full-time chair of the agency, which, among other duties, advises the President and Congress on national historic preservation policy. Succeeding Chair Milford Wayne Donaldson, Jorjani will complete the four-year term that began in January 2017. The full-time chair position was created through the December 2016 enactment of the National Park Service Centennial Act, which contained amendments to the National Historic Preservation Act converting the part-time chair to a full-time position. Jorjani’s goals as chair include working to ensure cultural resources are considered at the earliest stages of project planning to avoid process delays; examining ways to bring the digitization of historic property information to the 21st century in order to create more efficiencies for project planning; and seeking opportunities to improve communication among government at all levels and the private non-profit and for-profit sectors. She also is interested in highlighting vocational and traditional trades that require hands-on skills with historic resources.
NPS’s New Pride Guide
The National Park Service has published a new Pride Guide, the latest phase of its LGBTQ history initiative. Intended for students and learners of all ages, the guide is a companion document to the NHL Theme Study, LGBTQ America: A Theme Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer History.
The Pride Guide provides a brief summary of each chapter in the theme study, along with questions and activities that encourage users to explore the topic on their own. The chapters cover a wide array of subjects, such as art, health, law, religion, sports, and the military, and focus on certain neighborhoods or cities, such as Chicago, Miami, and New York. The combined purpose of the guide and theme study are to impart to a wide audience the broad themes, events, and people associated with LGBTQ history in the United States and the significance of historic places associated with them.
AASLH Receives Mellon Foundation Grant to Study Americans’ Attitude Towards History
The American Association for State and Local History (AASLH) has received a major grant of $479,000 from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for an exciting new project to research American attitudes towards history. The project, “Framing History with the American Public,” will be completed in collaboration with the Washington, DC-based FrameWorks Institute, the National Council on Public History (NCPH), and the Organization of American Historians (OAH). Over the next three years, a comprehensive, nationwide study will be conducted of how the public views, interprets, and uses a wide variety of history activities and new tools to strengthen the field’s communications efforts will be developed.

The history community in the United States contains more than twenty thousand public history organizations, more than one thousand academic departments, and countless history advocates around the country. “Framing History” will not only provide unprecedented detail about how Americans view these organizations and their work, it will build, test, and share tools that all organizations and practitioners can use to improve public understanding of the value of history. Whether it’s a historical society communicating with new audiences, an academic department talking with potential majors, or a museum making its case to funders or legislators, this project will provide history practitioners with tools to frame their messages as effectively as possible.

To begin, AASLH, NCPH, and OAH will establish a panel of history professionals representing the full breadth of the field to help the FrameWorks Institute identify the shared ideas and principles experts use to explain their work. Next, FrameWorks will conduct interviews around the country to better understand how Americans view history and its value to society and the gaps between their view and that of experts. In phase two of the project, FrameWorks will work with AASLH and partners to establish framing devices that can help overcome these gaps in understanding and empirically test their effectiveness through focus groups, experimental surveys, and on-the-street interviews.

In phase three, AASLH, NCPH, and OAH will help develop and share tools and educational materials to ensure professionals across the history community have access to the project’s findings. Conference sessions, workshops, webinars, and other means will be used to help deliver the project results to the history community and provide guidance on how to use these new framing devices. The project is scheduled to begin in late summer 2019.