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Virginia Landmarks Register

New Listings, December 2013

From the brick and stone storage cellars of a 19th-century brewery along the James River near Richmond to high-society estates in the horse and hunt country of rural northern Virginia, the commonwealth’s history is captured in the 13 sites listed in the Virginia Landmarks Register by DHR's Board of Historic Resources in December 2013. Also at that time, DHR's State Review Board nominated these same places for listing in the National Register of Historic Places with the National Park Service.

To view photos and read a summary of each site, use the arrows (top and bottom) to see slides or select a site from the drop-down menu above.


Chapel Rural Historic District, Clarke County

Located in the northern Shenandoah Valley, the Chapel Rural Historic District covers approximately 11,496 acres in scenic central Clarke County. The district contains historic residences and affiliated secondary buildings such as smokehouses, springhouses, garages, sheds, and summer kitchens, alongside commercial and institutional ones. The buildings date from the mid-18th century to the mid-20th century and demonstrate a variety of uses and styles—from plantation houses to modest vernacular dwellings—during more than 200 years.
    Representative of one of the richest farming regions in Virginia, the district features the Old Chapel—likely the oldest Episcopal church west of the Blue Ridge. There are also other Episcopal churches, an early-19th-century Baptist church, several late-19th-century African-American churches, and a rare surviving slave chapel. Five small historic African-American communities—Browntown, Pigeon Hill, Pyletown, Claytonville and a part of Millwood—contribute to the district .


Fair Oaks, Loudoun County

Built in 1881, Fair Oaks today is a 91-acre working farm. The two-and-a-half-story, frame I-house has elaborate detailing on the front porch and a rear ell. The house was built by Alexander Moore, whose family ran the Aldie Mill for six generations, and is constructed of materials either produced at the mill or acquired via mail order. The interior woodwork boasts original doors, mantels, casings, baseboard, and windows. Four surrounding outbuildings, also built in the early 1880s, include a hay barn, stable-corncrib, chicken house, and a spring house. The Fair Oaks property, important as a well-preserved example of late 19th-century farm, also contains a Moore family cemetery, established in 1844.


Haines Chapel and Cemetery, Rockbridge County

Completed in 1914, Haines Chapel is a wood-frame, vernacular house of worship located in a mountainous, sparsely populated area of Rockbridge County near today’s Blue Ridge Parkway. The chapel’s interior features extensive handcrafted original woodwork including flooring, chair rails, and altar, as well as a brass chandelier with six oil lamps and an antique piano and organ.
   A cemetery surrounding the chapel and founded in the late 18th century contains an unknown number of graves, some with gravestones displaying regional forms of funerary art and symbolic motifs. The earliest known interment is that of Joel Hight in 1793. Regular worship services at the chapel ceased in 1955.


James River Steam Brewery Cellars,
Henrico County

The James River Steam Brewery Cellars in Henrico County are the sole surviving remnant of the James River Steam Brewery, which operated from 1866 to 1879.

The cellars—built shortly before the advent of mechanical refrigeration and consisting of arched tunnels with stone foundations and end walls, and brick piers and vaults—served as the belowground storage and fermentation space for a five-story brewery building a fire destroyed in 1891. The largest tunnel is 146-feet long and 10- to 17-feet wide.

The James River Steam Brewery was affiliated with the Eagle Brewery of Pottsville, PA, now known as Yuengling Brewery, considered to be the oldest continuously operating brewery in the U.S.


King and Queen Courthouse Green Historic District,
Boundary Increase to Include Immanuel Epicopal Church,
King and Queen County

The King and Queen Courthouse Green Historic District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1998. The district’s boundary has been expanded to include the adjacent Immanuel Episcopal Church and its associated cemetery.

The church was constructed in 1884 in the Carpenter Gothic style and has been used continuously as a church since then.


Laurel Meadow, Richmond

Laurel Meadow is an early plantation home located in present-day Richmond on the one-acre remnant of an original 902-acre parcel. The one-and-one-half story, L-shaped house is a simple frame building, constructed in two distinct sections and displaying elements of Colonial and Federal architectural designs.

One house section, resting on an English basement, may have been constructed prior to 1776 when Col. David Patteson, an agent for William Byrd’s Falls Plantation, acquired the property. The other section appears to have been built in the early-19th century. A kitchen addition was attached around 1900 and was later extended to include a bath and laundry area.

Patteson was a first lieutenant in the Revolutionary War, a colonel in the Virginia Militia, a member of the House of Delegates, and a representative to the Virginia Federal Constitutional Convention of 1788. The property remained in the Patteson family until the 1840s.


Little River Rural Historic District, Fauquier County

Encompassing over 23,000 acres in the northeastern Fauquier County, the Little River Rural Historic District retains an abundant and diverse array of nearly 1,500 historic dwellings and agricultural buildings that date from the late-18th century through the 20th century. These include finely-constructed, vernacular log, frame, and stone houses, smokehouses, bank barns, and structures such as cemeteries, road traces and roads, bridges, stone fences and walls, and the ruins of three stone gristmills, a sawmill, and a distillery.

Initially land owners who settled the district subsisted on orchards, Indian corn, and livestock until transportation networks developed and improved access to markets in Haymarket and Alexandria. In 1903, the Orange County Hunt from Goshen, NY, relocated to the area and fostered a hunt and equine industry that transformed the district during the 20th century. Former working farms became gentry' estates where horse breeding, racehorse training, and dressage exercises occurred, along with foxhunting, by notable high-society owners who made Middleburg the heart of hunt country.

The Colonial Revival style emerged in the district through the 1940s as earlier residences were modified by nationally known architects. Today’s district also contains 760 acres affiliated with the Civil War Battle of Middleburg, an important cavalry battle that occurred on June 19, 1863.


Old Welbourne & Dulany Family Cemetery, Loudoun County

Anchored by an impressive circa-1878 manor house originally built in the Queen Anne style and remodeled into the Colonial Revival style in 1910, Old Welbourne consists today of 142 acres of farmland. John Peyton Dulany established Old Welbourne in 1812 in what was then a remote, unpopulated area of Virginia. Dulany made his living from personal banking and farming. Since 1840 Old Welbourne has continually hosted the Piedmont Fox Hounds, partaking of the area’s foxhunting tradition, which evolved from a past time of farmers into a formalized social event.
   Today’s property contains the ruins of the circa 1812 original home site, a Dulany family cemetery, stone ruins of an early-19th century bank barn and retaining wall, a circa 1878 farm building, and a circa 1910 frame tenant house. Old Welbourne’s historic structures include an 1812 roadbed and a circa 1837 stone springhouse/dairy. The property was sold out of the Dulany family in 1960.


On the Hill, Town of Boydton, Mecklenburg County

On the Hill, a Queen Anne-style house built about 1886, occupies nearly 23 acres in Boydton and sits with its dependencies on the crest of a small hill. The three-story house, a contributing property in the Boydton Historic District, has a wraparound porch, gazebo, turret, soaring and multiple cross-gabled roofs, gingerbread, and naturalistic raised metal designs. Its interior Victorian-era embellishments also remain intact. The property includes a pump house atop a stone-lined well, a summer kitchen, a smoke house, and a caretaker’s cottage.


PhotosParadise, Warrenton, Fauquier County

Located in the Warrenton Historic District, Paradise, built around 1758, is a two-story, evolved Federal-style timber-frame house, with much of its original interior woodwork, doors, windows, and mantels. The house is associated with Martin Pickett, a county leader who was a representative to the State Convention of 1776 and the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and Judge William Gaines, a wealthy businessman who purchased the property after the Civil War. Gaines lived there until his death in 1888, distinguishing himself in the legal field and eventually serving as a judge on the Fauquier County Circuit Court. The property has two historic secondary buildings—a circa 1870 summer kitchen resting on a brick foundation and a circa 1830 frame smokehouse.


Springhill Historic District,

The Springhill Historic District, a compact residential neighborhood on the south side of the James River in Richmond, arose as a street-car suburb beginning in the 1870s, although most of its homes were constructed during the early decades of the 20th century and reflect popular styles of the day such as Craftsman, Colonial Revival, Bungalow and American Foursquare.

The district also features structures associated with early 19th-century Manchester Waterworks and the James River Manchester Canal. These include a sub-surface aqueduct and the stone foundations of the waterworks, a stone sluiceway and a settling basin built in the 1820s, and later expanded around 1878. It also contains the site of a water-control tower, built between 1814 and 1820.

The Springhill district was part of Chesterfield County until 1873, when it was annexed to the incorporated Town of Manchester. Residential expansion was tied to a boom in manufacturing, quarrying, and shipping in Manchester after the Civil War.

As part of the Town of Manchester, Springhill was annexed to the City of Richmond in 1910.


Wilkins Farm, Shenandoah County

The Wilkins Farm is a late-18th-century farmstead of German immigrant origin in the Shenandoah Valley. It was owned and developed by three different German families who settled in Shenandoah County, attended the same church, and expressed the same close-knit values. The main residence is an evolved two-story farm house that began as a single-room log dwelling in 1776 and was expanded to two stories in 1789. A rear ell was added to the main block in 1842. The house is distinctive in that most of the circa 1789 interior elements remain in their original condition and faux painting documents German folk art of the era. 
   The property was the boyhood home of Emanuel Wilkins, a noted artist in the Shenandoah Valley who practiced the fraktur tradition of stylized lettering and illuminated illustration developed by German immigrants in Pennsylvania. The Wilkins family occupied the farm from 1824 until 2003. Contributing secondary buildings on the property include a circa 1789 log granary and a summer kitchen with a limestone basement and fireplace, a well, and domestic quarters above.


Woods Hill, City of Franklin

Woods Hill in Franklin (in Southampton Co.) is a significant example of the collaborative work of two 20th-century master practitioners in Virginia of home and landscape design, Alan McCullough and Charles Freeman Gillette. The landscape design work of Gillette, however, is the primary focus of the nomination that earned the property a listing in the Virginia Landmarks Register. Gillette sited the house and other buildings, laid out the property’s ponds, gardens and plantings, and incorporated three existing buildings (a 1937 restaurant, service station, and pump house) into a his plan. Architect McCullough designed the two-story brick and wood house, constructed in 1951. Today’s 17-plus acre property features a car park, dog cemetery, log cabin, flower house, dog house, stables, peacock house, pump house, doll house, and fort.