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Virginia Department of Historic Resources

Candy Creek Ware

Candy Creek Ware
Candy Creek Ware
Period: Middle Woodland
Defining Attributes: Candy Creek Ware, dating to the Middle Woodland period, is an undecorated, cord-marked ceramic with limestone temper.
Chronology: The accepted date for Candy Creek Ware is within the period 100 to 900 CE, late Middle Woodland. At the Arrington site (44WG0027) in Washington County, dated 890 +/-160 CE, 89% of the 1,021 sherds were cord-marked and limestone tempered (Candy Creek Ware) while 9% were plain (Bartlett 1980:35-48).
Distribution: Sites that contain Candy Creek Ware include 44RU0044 (McIlhany 1983), 44LE0071 (McGuire and Geier 1984), 44LE0076 (DHR collection), Arrington site (44WG0027), and a component of rockshelter 44WS0024 (Rodger 1982:22).
Description:
Paste/Temper: Candy Creek Ware is limestone tempered with a silty paste
Surface Treatment: A single surface treatment, cord marked normally applied vertically to the rim, has been defined for this ware. However, at the Arrington site, a plainsurface minority type was found in association with Candy Creek Cord Marked.
Decoration: No decoration.
Morpholopgy:
Vessel Form: Candy Creek Ware vessels are coil constructed with paddle malleation
Vessel Diameter: Unknown
Vessel Height: Unknown
Rim Form: Lips are rounded or flattened. Rims are either slightly flaring or straight.
Base Form: Unknown
Vessel Wall Thickness: The walls appear thin, ranging from 4 to 6 mm in thickness. This is surprising given the fact that the vessels are tempered with rather large pieces of limestone.
Discussion: Evans (1955:131) noted a similarity between Candy Creek and Radford wares, although Radford Ware should be restricted to the Late Woodland Period. Chapman (1973) and Keel (1976:222) noted the association of Candy Creek Ware with Connestee Ware. McIlhany (1983:32-35) found the same association at 44RU0014. No net-impressed sherds, which would represent the later Radford Ware, were found. It is impossible, given a few body sherds, to distinguish Candy Creek Ware from Radford Cord Marked. However, with a larger sample that includes rim sherds, the differences become evident. Candy Creek Ware is undecorated with vertical rims, while Radford Cord Marked exhibits decorated flaring rims with strap handles and castellations. Long Branch Fabric Marked Ware, a limestonetempered ware, dates to the early part of the Middle Woodland Period, earlier than Wright Check Stamped, Bluff Creek Simple Stamped, and Mulberry Creek Plain. These wares date from the middle of the Middle Woodland Period, earlier than Candy Creek Ware. Therefore, Candy Creek Ware appears late within the Middle Woodland Period and is unrelated to the earlier limestonetempered wares.
Defined in the Literature: Candy Creek Ware, a limestone tempered Middle Woodland type, was mentioned by Lewis and Kneberg (1946:102) in their Hiwassee Island report but was not formally defined until 1961 (Kneberg). McIlhany (1983) was the first archaeologist to describe in great detail the ware from Virginia from 44RU0044.
References: Bartlett 1980; Chapman 1973; Evans 1955; Keel 1976; Kneberg 1961; Lewis and Kneberg 1946; McGuire and Geier 1984; McIlhany 1983; Rodger 1982;
Prepared By: Egloff 2008

Updated February 6, 2020